The Nuts and Bolts of Materials Science

Resources  (Fall 2015)

Chapter 2

For pictures of the shapes of the hydrogen wave functions (1s - 3d states) go to

I think the picture about half way down on the page is most instructive, but you may also want to explain the plots of the radial wave function.

Another possibility is

This goes a little further, showing more atomic orbitals, and also showing hybrid orbitals and molecular orbitals.

Chapter 3

DoITPoMS > TLP Library > Crystallography

This has a couple of nice atomic resolution pictures of lattices at the top of the page. I also found the "Lattice Point Game" instructive.
The rest of the page is a fairly extensive tutorial on crystal structures with much more stuff than I cover.

Ionic structures

This is a java applet that allows to rotate the structures. Control on the screen is a bit tricky.

Packing of spheres, M&Ms, cigars, and other spheroids

The closest regular 3D (crystal) packing of spheres is FCC with an APF of 0.74. The closest random packing of spheres has an APF of about 0.66.
The closest random packing of M&Ms is about 0.68, and an M&M crystal can have an APF as high as 0.77.

Chapter 4

An excellent resource about defects in solids:

The web page contains a wonderful picture showing ALL types of solid defects in a single drawing.

Interactive tutorials on interstitial sites:

Find octahedral interstitial sites in FCC

Find tetrahedral interstitial sites in FCC

There are also similar tutorials for BCC, but I think those defect sites are rather hard to visualize.

Movies of moving defects in bubble rafts by Doug Stone:

The movies are wmv files. Go down to the middle of the page. You may have to download the files before playing them. These are my favorites:

  • Long crack (edge)
  • Another center crack Nr. 1
  • Pureshear1 (mode II loading)    This is NOT homogeneous slip!
  • Pureshear2 (mode II loading)
  • Dislocation interactions; high angle boundary
  • Reflection of dislocations off slippery, rigid surface, tension

Chapter 5

Measurement of Mechanical Properties

The page deals with a number of issues in mechanical properties, with specific examples for Al alloys. It includes several flash movies. Of most interest, I think, are:

  • Tensile Test Machine
    An animation of a tensile test
  • Tensile Testing of Aluminium Alloys
    Pick your alloy and perform a virtual tensile test

Chapter 6

Diffusion animations, mostly from biology:

Dissolution of a sugar cube in water

Passive transport across a membrane

These are very simple flash videos of diffusion and osmosis through a membrane in biology. The situation is analogous to diffusion of hydrogen through a Pd foil.

Chapter 7

Normal and dendritic growth in solidification:

They have two simple animations showing normal and dendritic growth depending on the temperature gradient at the solid-liquid interface. There are also two micrographs with dendrites.

Chapter 8

Microstructure and mechanical properties:

I liked especially the following sections:

  • Casting:
    Nice practical videos for Al and stainless steel casting
  • Solidification:
    Animation showing nucleation and growth of a polycrystalline sample
  • Grain structure in casting:
    Heterogeneous nucleation + growth. Questions: Why is there a central seam in the alloy? Why a fault in the middle?
  • Grain deformation:
    Creation of dislocations during cold work

Chapters 9-11

Practical illustrations of manufacturing processes:

How Everyday Things are Made

This site has flash videos on various methods of metals, glass, and plastics processing: Anything from making an airplane to making plastic bottles. The length of the videos ranges from about 1 min to over 12 min. A good place for students to browse around; perhaps not that useful for showing in class.

The A to Z of Materials

This site has a variety of commercial videos. I found the ones on a tensile test of HDPE and on how plastic bottles are made informative, but there is much more.

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